Science behind the solution

Learn more about the research that supports our model.

Healthcare innovation

American Hospital Association, Bringing Behavioral Health Into the Care Continuum: Opportunities to Improve Quality, Costs and Outcomes.

Population Health Alliance (2012). Implementation and Evaluation: A Population Health Guide for Primary Care Models.

Population Health Alliance (2012). Population Health Management in Physician Practice: A Call to Action.

Fisher, E. (2013). Integrating Peer Support into Primary Care, Peers for Progress, American Academy of Family Physicians.

MacDonald, J.A., et al. (2013). The Future of Health Care Access. Stanford Social Innovation Review

Porter, M.E., et al. (2013). Redesigning Primary Care: A Strategic Vision to Improve Value by Organizing Around Patients' Needs. Health Affairs, 32, no. 3: 516-525.

Porter, M.E. and Lee, T.H. (2013). The Strategy that will Fix Health Care. Harvard Business Review. 

Sterling, S., et al. (2011). Integrating Care for People with Co-Occurring Alcohol and Other Drug, Medical and Mental Health Conditions, Alcohol Research and Health 33, no. 4: 338-49. 


Addiction: A brain disease

Boettiger, C. et al. (2007). Brain Imaging and Genetic Studies Link Thinking Patterns to Addiction, Journal of Neuroscience

Everrit, B. et al. (2008). Neural Mechanisms Underlying the Vulnerability to Develop Compulsive Drug-Seeking Habits and Addiction, Phil Trans R Soc B 12 October: 3125-3135. 

Harvard Health Publications (2004). The Addicted Brain.

Leshner, A. (1997). Addiction is a Brain Disease, and it Matters. Science Vol. 278 no. 5335 pp. 45-47. 

National Institute on Drug Abuse (2012). Understanding Addiction. 

National Institute on Drug Abuse (2010). Drugs, Brains and Behavior: The Science of Addiction. 

National Institute on Drug Abuse (2008). Addiction Science: From Molecules to Managed Care. 

Ron, D. and Jurd, R. (2005). The “Ups and Downs” of Signaling Cascades in Addiction, Science, Issue 309, p. re14. 

Volkow, N. et al. (2003). The Addicted Human Brain: Insights from Imaging Studies. Journal of Clinical Investigation, 111(10):1444–1451.

Volkow, N. (undated). Addiction and the Brain’s Pleasure Pathway: Beyond Willpower  


Chronic disease management for addiction

Alvarez, S. (2009). Chronic Disease Self-Management: The Stanford Model, Stanford School of Medicine.

Gelber, S. and Dougherty, R. (n.d.). Disease Management for Chronic Behavioral Health and Substance Use Disorders. Center for Health Care Strategies.

McCay, J. and Hiller-Sturmhofel, S. (2011). Treating Alcoholism as a Chronic Disease: Approaches to Long-Term Continuing Care, Alcohol Research and Health 33, no. 4: 356-70. 

McLellan, T. et al. (2000). Drug Dependence, a Chronic Medical Illness: Implications for Treatment, Insurance and Outcomes Evaluation. Journal of the American Medical Association, Oct 4; 284(13):1689-95.

White, W., Kurtz, E., Sanders, M. (2006). Recovery Management. Great Lakes Addiction Technology Transfer. 

White, W., (2008). Recovery Management and Recovery-Oriented Systems of Care: Scientific Rationale and Promising Practices. Institute for Research and Training in Addictions. 

White, W., et al. (2002). Alcoholism/Addiction as a Chronic Disease: From Rhetoric to Clinical Reality. Alcoholism Treatment Quarterly. 20(3/4) 107-130.

Treatment and addiction medicine

Miller, W. et al. (2006). Disseminating Evidence-Based Practices in Substance Abuse Treatment: A Review with Suggestions, Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment 31, no. 1:25-39.

Miller, W. et al. (2005). Evidence-Based Treatment: Why, What, Where, When and How? Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment 29, no.4: 267-76.

National Center on Addiction and Substance Abuse at Columbia University (2012). Addiction Medicine: Closing the Gap Between Science and Practice. 

Sellman, D. (2009). The 10 Most Important Things Known About Addiction, Addiction 105, no.1: 6-13. 

Addiction in the workplace

Frone, M. (2006). Prevalence and Distribution of Alcohol Use and Impairment in the Workplace: A U.S. National Survey. J Stud. Alcohol, 67, 1: 147-156.

Harwood, H. and Reichman, B. (2000). The Cost to Employers of Employee Alcohol Abuse: A Review of the Literature in the USA. Bulletin on Narcotics, Vol. LII, Nos. 1 & 2, Geneva: United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime. 

Larson, S., Eyerman, J.,  Foster, M., and Gfroerer, J. (2007). Worker Substance Use and Workplace Policies and Programs. DHHS Pub No. SMA 07-4273, Rockville, MD: SAMHSA, OAS.

Miller, T., Zaloshnja, E., and Spicer, R. (2007). Effectiveness and Benefit-Cost of Peer-Based Workplace Substance Abuse Prevention Coupled with Random Testing. Accident Analysis and Prevention. May: 39(3):565-73. Epub 2006 Nov 27.

National Business Group on Health, Center for Prevention and Health Services (2009). An Employer's Guide to Workplace Substance Abuse: Strategies and Treatment Recommendations.

Office of Personnel Management (2014). Alcoholism in the Workplace: A Handbook for Supervisors.       

SAMHSA, OAS (2007). The NSDUH Report: Worker Substance Use by Industry Category, Rockville, MD. 

Peer recovery support

Bassuk, E. et al. (2016). Peer-Delivered Recovery Support Services for Addictions in the United States: A Systematic Review. Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment 63:1-9

Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, Center for Substance Abuse Treatment (2012). Perspectives on the Evolution and Future of Peer Recovery Support Services. Rockville, MD.

Godley, M. & White, W. (2011). Telephone Recovery Check Ups: An Assertive Approach to Post-Treatment Continuing Care. Counselor Magazine.

Horng, F., and Chueh, K., (2004). Effectiveness of Telephone Follow­up and Coun­seling in Aftercare for Alcoholism. Journal of Nursing Research 12:11–19.

McKay, J.R.; Lynch, K.G.; Shepard, D.S.; et al. (2004). The Effectiveness of Telephone­Based Continuing Care in the Clinical Management of Alcohol and Cocaine Use Disorders: 12 Month Outcomes. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 72:967–979, 2004.

McKay, J.R. et al. (2005). The Effective­ness of Telephone­-Based Continuing Care for Alcohol and Cocaine Dependence: 24­-Month Outcomes. Archives of General Psychiatry 62:199–207.

McLellan, A.T., Hagan, T.A., Levine, M., Gould, F., Meyers, K. and Bencivengo, M., et al. (1998). Research Report: Supplemental Social Services Improve Outcomes in Public Addiction Treatment. Addiction, 93(10), 1489-1499.

Scott, C.K., Dennis, M.L., & Foss, M.A. (2005). Recovery Management Check Ups to Shorten the Cycle of Relapse, Treatment, Re-Entry and Recovery. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 78, 325-338.

White, W. & Kurtz, E. (2006). Linking Addiction Treatment and Communities of Recovery: A Primer for Addiction Counselors and Recovery Coaches. Northeast Addiction Technology Transfer Center.

White, W., (2008). Peer-Based Addiction Recovery Support. History, Theory, Practice and Scientific Evaluation. Monograph, Great Lakes Addiction Technology Transfer Center

White, W. & Cloud, W. (2008). Recovery Capital: A Primer for Addictions Professionals. Counselor, 9(5), 22-27.

The Science Behind Peer Support for Mental Health, Diabetes and Multiple Health Conditions (summary)

Hazelden Betty Ford Foundation. Butler Center for Research. The Importance of Recovery Management (April 2016).


Recovery capital evaluation model

Betty Ford Institute Consensus Panel (2007). What is Recovery? A Working Definition from The Betty Ford Institute, Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment, Vol. 33, pp 221-228.

Granfield, R. and Cloud, W. (1999). Coming Clean: Overcoming Addiction Without Treatment, NYU Press.

Cloud, W, & Granfield, R. (2004). A Life Course Perspective on Exiting Addiction: The Relevance of Recovery Capital in Treatment. Nordic Council for Alcohol and Drug Research.

Best and Laudet (2010). The Potential of Recovery Capital, 2010 citing Environmental Resources and the Post-Treatment Functioning of Alcoholic Patients, Journal of Health and Social Behavior, Vol. 18, No. 3, Bromet & Moos, 1977.

Humphreys, K., Moos, R. J., & Cohen, C. (1997).  Social and Community Resources and Long-Term Recovery from Treated and Untreated Alcoholism, Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 58(3), 231-238.

Simpson, D., and George, W. (2004). A Longitudinal Evaluation of Treatment Engagement and Recovery Stages, Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment, 27.2: 89-97.

Laudet AB, Morgen K, White WL. (2006). The Role of Social Supports, Spirituality, Religiousness, Life Meaning and Affiliation with 12-Step Fellowships in Quality of Life Satisfaction Among Individuals in Recovery from Alcohol and Drug Problems. Alcohol Treat Quarterly, 24: 33–73. 

Nonprofit innovation and social entrepreneurship

Gibson, C.M., et al. (2013). To Get to the Good, You Gotta Dance with the Wicked. Stanford Social Innovation Review. 

Shore, B. et al. (2013). When Good is not Enough. Stanford Social Innovation Review.